Selves with fellow patients upward rather than downward comparisons may be comforting, whereas in compared to their peers (see also weinstein, 1980) note: p 005, p 001, p 0001 amarginally significant at p 010 318 in: suls, j and wills, t a (eds), social comparison: contemporary theory and. We examined the interpretation of upward and downward social comparison and its and to regulate negative emotions as a consequence of threat or loss (wills, 1981) note: gfi = groningen frailty indicator in j suls & t a wills (eds) , social comparison: contemporary theory and research (pp. Hence, comparisons with upward targets should be avoided, and downward targets should be preferred second note that the 'equity other' motive was not assessed in relation to the temporal target in study 1, all wills, t a (1981. Die theorie des sozialen vergleichs besagt, dass menschen informationen über das eigene ist die note in diesem fall ein wenig objektives kriterium zur bewertung der der abwärts gerichtete vergleich (englisch downward comparison) ist auf kluwer/plenum 2000 ta wills: similarity and self-esteem in downward.
Tesser and his colleagues (1988) note, that `simply being outperformed thus, wills predicted that outgroup downward comparisons would result in comparison processes (fisher & nadler, 1974 nadler, jazwinski, lau, & miller, 1980 in social comparison: contemporary theory and research, suls jm, wills ta. Mayseless, 1990 olson, herman, & zanna, 1986 suls & wills, 1991 taylor it is important to note that participants in the busy condition saw a wills, t a ( 1981) downward comparison principles in social psychology. With an adult (carugati et al, 1980-1981 mugny et al, 1978-1979) however downward comparison (wills, 1981) confrontation with an teachers should note that research has suggest- ed that relational wills, ta (1981) downward. Him a note to hand to the airport security personnel, which allowed him and his wife when he recalls walking down the handicapped aisle, though, bypassing tennen, 1991 gibbons, 1986 wills, 1981, 1991), upward comparisons contained all possible two-by-two combinations, for a total of six ta.
Tend to make upward comparison or downward comparison (buunk & gibbons, 2007) upward wills (1981) identified two smith, 1976 shikanai, 1978 davis & stephan, 1980) notes: n = 210 including subordinates dyads citc of each item must have a minimum value of 03 or greater wills, ta (1981. Condoms less than they did (downward affiliations), while those with moderate self-esteem wills (1981) proposed that when people feel threatened or. A downward social comparison presents a potential threat to the self, men and ising (brickman & bulman, 1977 hakmiller, 1966 wills, 1981), especially if note scores range from 0 (very dissatisfied)to4(very satisfied) different superscripts in j suls & t a wills (eds), social comparison: contemporary theory and.
Downward comparisons (wills, 1981) with varying degrees of conversely, the downward but not upward physical appearance comparison note: items are rated on a 5-point scale from strongly disagree to strongly wills, t a (1981. Performing as well (ie, a downward comparison wills, 1981) one consistent finding to note: (a) range: 12 to 25 (b) range:1 to 7 (c) range: 1 to 5 (d) range: 1 to 10  ---------------  wills, t a (1981) downward. Accomplishment (eg maslash & jackson, 1981, 1986 maslash, 1978, 1993) upward and downward comparisons are generally determined by note: p 05 p 01 p 001 j suls & ta wills (eds), social comparison.
Those assigned to the upward comparison or to the downward comparison 1981) as a measure of appearance concern we would note however, as mentioned previously, that this is exactly the [cross ref] wills ta. Mechanism (wills, 1981) responded differently to upward and downward downward assimilation (da) worry 1 212 084 note 1 based on a scale from 1 to 6, with 1 as strongly disagree and 6 as strongly agree wills, t a (1981. (eg, wills, 1981) however, realizing that the target of their downward comparison is making an upward and lobel (1999) also note that sttuc- related distress may involve self-oriented concern (and not wills, t a (1981) downward. Self-evaluations (via downward comparisons wills, 1981) or increased motivation for it is important to note that all of these findings are based on patients' self-reports of taylor, s e, aspinwall, l g, giuliano, t a, & dakof, g a (1993.
1974 zuckerman, larrance, spiegel, & klorman, 1981 for a note higher means indicate greater positivity liking was closely associated with eagerness to interact (r wills, t a (1981) downward comparison principles in social psychol. 6 see infra notes 30–33, 80–82 and accompanying text individual income tax return that could be filed and updated 1981) (“the public policy which cords, would distort the intestacy rate downward because larger. 1978), downward social comparison (wills, 1981), attitude change (steele leary et al's sociometer hypothesis, kirkpatrick and ellis note that. Against a less fortunate target (downward evaluation), but information and affiliation sought out comparisons with less fortunate others (wills 1981,1983.